Supporting Pre-Service Education

This section provides resources for assisting pre-service education students by supervising their practice teaching in your own classroom, mentoring or tutoring a pre-service teacher, teaching or presenting at a college course, or advocating for the teaching profession with secondary school students.

Click on the following issues related to supporting pre-service education to see links and bibliographical references to resources that address those issues.

ISSUE: What can be done to better prepare pre-service teachers to teach math and science?

ISSUE: What can be done to provide students with more time in classrooms to observe and to teach?

ISSUE: What can be done to retain new teachers?

ISSUE: Do practicing secondary school teachers participate in distance learning for pre-service teachers?

ISSUE: Are there video examples of practicing teachers working with pre-service teachers?

ISSUE: What do “professional development schools” look like?

ISSUE: What does research say about what good pre-service is?

ISSUE: What can teachers do to improve the teaching profession pipeline, such as influence undecided undergraduates?

ISSUE: What roles do practicing secondary school teachers have in college courses for pre-service teachers?

ISSUE: Can practicing secondary school teachers identify and nurture future teachers while they are still in secondary school?

ISSUE: Are there instructional materials a practicing teacher can use in a pre-service course?

Read an interview with Judith Gau, an elementary science Presidential Awardee.
Read an interview with Anne Holbrook, an elementary science Presidential Awardee.
Read an interview with Leslie Hiles Paoletti, a secondary mathematics Presidential Awardee.

 


ISSUE: What can be done to better prepare pre-service teachers to teach math and science?

Electronic Journal of Science Education (EJSE) 2002. Vol. 6 (4). Culturally Relevant College-Level Astronomy Courses for Non-Science Majors
http://unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/ejsev6n4.html

Once on this page, click on the article titled "Culturally Relevant College-Level Astronomy Courses for Non-Science Majors." This article describes one way of preparing pre-service teachers to teach inquiry science: develop college-level science courses in the inquiry format. After completing the 2001 spring semester, Professor Greg Townsend of Christendom College wrote a paper making the case for offering culturally relevant college-level astronomy courses for non-science majors because “sensibly paced, experience-orientated courses of study (allow) the students (to) develop a genuine scientific understanding of a limited number of significant scientific ideas by a synthesis of their own experience and thought.”

Project Kaleidoscope
http://www.pkal.org/collections/People.cfm

This group of volunteer college faculty and administrators, funded in part by the National Science Foundation, is one of the leading advocates in this country for building and sustaining strong undergraduate programs in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The following link lists members and their institutions. You might want to contact members in your area to discuss their reform efforts.

More Content Courses? Maybe Not!
WCER Highlights, a Wisconsin Center for Education Research publication, Fall 2001
http://www.wceruw.org/publications/highlights/v13n3_fall01.pdf

This article suggests that content courses leave pre-service teachers with little understanding of how their students learn science concepts. The research led to the conclusions about how pre-service teacher education could be strengthened, which are discussed in this article.

Inquiry Teaching and Learning: The Best Math Class Study
School Science and Mathematics, January, 2005, Jerry K Stonewater
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2005.tb18034.x/abstract

This research report documents and analyzes pre-service teachers’ perceptions of effective mathematics instruction both prior to and after completing an inquiry-designed mathematics course.

The Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers Need to Know
R. James Milgram, Stanford University
ftp://math.stanford.edu/pub/papers/milgram/FIE-book.pdf

The United States Department of Education awarded a grant to Doug Carnine, Tom Loveless and R. James Milgram in 2002 to analyze the reasons for the success of Polish, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Romanian, Chinese, Japanese and other successful mathematics programs and produce a book designed for the use of mathematics departments in constructing a two-year sequence of courses that will achieve this goal.

Reconsidering the Mathematics Preparation of Pre-service Secondary Mathematics Teachers
Mary Beisiegel, Josh Chesler, Dana Cox, Rachael Kenney, Jill Newton, and Jamalee Stone
http://www.ams.org/notices/201308/rnoti-p1056.pdf

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ISSUE: What can be done to provide students with more time in classrooms to observe and to teach?

Pre-Service Teachers as Tutors in the Classroom: A Literature Review
Molli O’Neill for the North Cascades and Olympic Science Partnership
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/preserviceTeachersAsTutors.doc

This document makes the case for increasing pre-service teachers’ time in schools by giving them jobs as classroom tutors. A number of programs from across the country are featured as part of this literature review.

Developing Multimedia Case Studies for Preservice Teacher Education
National Science Foundation Grant #9725512
http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/jbowers/overview.htm

This project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a collaboration between San Diego State University, Syracuse University, and Vanderbilt Universities. It acknowledges that mathematics-teacher educators face several practical problems in their work with pre-service teachers, including the nature and the length of time students spend in classrooms observing math instruction. To help address this issue, they have designed multimedia case studies of middle school science teachers for pre-service teachers to analyze.

Preparing Better Teachers: Using Collaboration in Preservice Education
Dr. Teresa Young, Dr. Tom Knestrict
http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/Journals/Winter2012/Young-Knestrict

This article describes a slightly different approach to educating preservice teachers.

 

ISSUE: What can be done to retain new teachers?

Literature Review: What are some of the keys to first-year teacher induction? What supports are necessary for new teachers?
Molli O’Neill for the North Cascades and Olympic Science Partnership.
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/Literature Review.doc

This literature review makes the case for supporting new teachers through induction programs that are tailored to individual school systems and their needs. In short, “This literature review will give the reader a good idea of the range of induction and mentoring programs that are going on around the world and what characteristics deem them successful.”

Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Teacher Retention
Members of the Charlotte Advocates for Education, a Local Education Fund in Charlotte, SC
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/RolePrincipalLeadership.pdf

Their report examines the relationship between principals and teacher retention by studying CMS principals, particularly those in high-needs schools, who have been more successful in retaining teachers while increasing student achievement.

The Effects of School Facility Quality on Teacher Retention in Urban School Districts
Jack Buckley, Boston College, and Mark Schneider and Yi Shang from Stony Brook University, February 2004
http://www.ncef.org/pubs/teacherretention.pdf

This research paper builds upon current literature by suggesting an additional important factor: the quality of school facilities. It investigates the importance of facility quality using data from a survey of K–12 teachers in Washington, D.C. They find that facility quality is an important predictor of a teacher’s decision to leave his or her current position. This research was supported in part by the Ford Foundation and the 21st Century School Fund through its BEST (Building Educational Success Together) program.

Interview: Who Stays in Teaching and Why
EdWeek.org, Agent K–12, May 27, 2005
http://www.edweek.org/agentk-12/articles/2005/05/27/05pngt_tr.html

The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers at Harvard University, in conjunction with the AARP’s educator community, recently released a report titled Who Stays in Teaching and Why: A Review of the Literature on Teacher Retention. In an e-mail interview, EdWeek asked Morgaen Donaldson, a PNGT research assistant, what the research on retention can tell school recruiters and personnel administrators.

The Impact of Mentoring on Teacher Retention: What the Research Says
Richard Ingersoll and Jeffrey M. Kralik, February 2004
http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/50/36/5036.htm

This report’s primary objective was to provide policy makers, educators, and researchers with a reliable assessment of what is known, and not known, about the effectiveness—the value added—of teacher-induction programs. In particular, it focuses on the impact of induction and mentoring programs on teacher retention.

Retaining New Teachers
Paul M. Hewitt
http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol6/602-hewitt.aspx

This article emphasizes the importance of principal support in retaining new teachers.

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ISSUE: Do practicing secondary school teachers mentor pre-service teachers in classrooms?

Exploring Clinical, On-Site Supervision in a School-University Partnership
James M. Shiveley, Teacher Educator, 37 (4), Spring 2002
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ660205

This article describes a model for improved supervision of student interns, improved cohesion of teacher education programs, and improved professional development for school faculty.

 

Experiential Learning for Pre-Service Science and Mathematics Teachers: Applications to Secondary Classrooms
Gilmer, P. J., Hahn, L., and Spaid, M.R, Southeast Eisenhower Regional Consortium for Mathematics and Science Education at SERVE, 2002
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/ExperientialLearningPreService.pdf

Go to “Chapter One: Impact of Scientific Research Experiences: Pre-Service Teachers’ Ideas on How They Think About and Teach Science,” on page 7 (12 of 126 in the Acrobat document) for information about a program where pre-service teachers worked with a practicing science teacher and a scientist in a research laboratory and how such experiences effected how future high school science teachers think about science and how they plan to teach science.

Preservice Teacher Education: Increasing the Role of the Cooperating Teacher
Judi Fenton, TeachersNetwork.org
http://teachersnetwork.org/tnli/research/prep/Fenton/index.htm

This article explores the current role of practicing teachers in guiding pre-service teachers and how that role should be expanded.

I Am SO Excited! Mentoring the Student Teacher
Anna K. Schriever, Classroom Leadership, May 1999, Vol. 2, No. 8
http://www.ascd.org/...Mentoring_the_Student_Teacher.aspx

This article describes one teachers experiences and action research about supporting a student teacher in her classroom.

What Is Co-Teaching?
Univerisity of Minnesota, Twin Cities
http://www.cehd.umn.edu/TERI/Co-Teaching/Foundations/What.html

This online articles discusses co-teaching as a means of mentoring in the classroom.

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ISSUE: Are there video examples of practicing teachers working with pre-service teachers?

Mentoring Video Clips
National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development
http://ncipp.education.ufl.edu/videos.php

This webpage provides some examples of exchanges between beginning teachers and their mentors.

New Teacher Survival Guide: Mentoring
Teaching Channel
https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/mentoring-for-new-teachers

A mentor and mentee apply six essential tips for new teacher support.

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ISSUE: What do “professional development schools” look like?

University-High School Partnerships for Science Education: Multiple Perspectives
Susan Westbrook, Jack Wheatley and Laura N. Rogers, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Penn State University
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED446900

Overview of a “professional development school” and the experiences of one school-university partnership.

Professional Development Schools
The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
http://www.ncate.org/Accreditation/AllAccreditationResources/ProfessionalDevelopmentSchools/tabid/497/Default.aspx

Overview of PD schools, including their five defining characteristics.

The Nature of Professional Development Schools
Ismat Abdal-Haqq, ERIC Digest 4-89, ED316548, 1989
http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9214/nature.htm

Purposes of the “professional development school” and also their critiques.

Professional Development Schools and Educational Reform: Concepts and Concerns
Ismat Abdal-Haqq, ERIC Digest 91-2, ED335357, 1991
http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-5/concerns.htm

Rationale, principles, and goals of the “professional development school” and also concerns about them.

Standards for Professional Development Schools
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Fall 2001, Overview of the PDS Standards
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/PDSchoolsStandards.pdf (page 3)

These standards are intended to bring rigor to the concept of professional development schools (PDS), support PDS partnerships as they develop, or for developing leadership within the partnership itself. The standards and developmental guidelines are designed to be used in an assessment process, to provide feedback to PDS partners about their work.

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ISSUE: What does research say about what good pre-service is?

Prepared to Make a Difference
National Commission on Excellence in Elementary Teacher Preparation for Reading Instruction, International Reading Association. To access the report, type "National Commission on Excellence in Elementary Teacher Preparation" into the search window.
http://www.reading.org/Libraries/position-statements-and-resolutions/1061teacher_ed_com_summary.pdf

This report highlights the results of a three-year research effort and details the critical features of an exemplary teacher preparation program. Click on the links provided to download the PDF document of that section of the report. Although this report focuses on elementary reading, the criteria are applicable to all pre-service programs.

The Research and Rhetoric on Teacher Certification: A Response to “Teacher Certification Reconsidered”
Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University and National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, October 15, 2001
http://teacherleadership.edc.org/docs/ResearchRhetoric.pdf

This report discusses evidence of the effectiveness of teacher preparation and the effectiveness of certified vs. uncertified teachers.

National Science Education Standards
National Research Council
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309053269&page=55

This link takes you to Chapter 4: Standards for Professional Development, Professional Development Standard D which provides characteristics of quality pre-service programs.

Eight Questions on Teacher Preparation: What Does the Research Say?
Michael Allen, Program Director, Education Commission of the States
http://www.ecs.org/html/educationIssues/teachingquality/tpreport/home/summary.pdf

This article summarizes the findings from a report based on a review of 92 studies that were selected, using rigorous criteria, from a total of more than 500 originally considered. These studies were used to answer eight questions about teacher pre p a ration that are of particular importance to policy and education leaders.

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ISSUE: What can teachers do to improve the teaching profession pipeline, such as influence undecided undergraduates?

A Sense of Calling: Who Teaches and Why
Public Agenda Online
http://www.publicagenda.org/files/sense_of_calling.pdf

This article describes a study to find out what teachers really think of their profession and to compare their views with those of the administrators who hired them and college graduates who chose different careers.

Decide If Teaching Is For You
TEACH California. 2004.
http://www.teachcalifornia.org/decide/index.html

This site offers resources to help prospective teachers determine if teaching is the right profession for them. Topics include interviews, what students and teachers think about teaching, the different types of teaching, how to try being a teacher, and incentives for prospective teachers.

Teacher Pipeline
Education Writers Association
http://www.ewa.org/site/PageServer?pagename=resources_k12_teachers_pipeline

This webpage provides a variety of publications, news stories, and resources regarding the improvement of the teacher pipeline.

Building an Effective Teacher Pipeline
American Youth Policy Forum
http://www.aypf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Teacher%20Pipeline%20Resources.pdf

This document contains a list of resources that revolve around improving the teacher pipeline.

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ISSUE: What roles do practicing secondary school teachers have in college courses for pre-service teachers?

Preservice Teacher Education: Increasing the Role of the Cooperating Teacher
Judi Fenton, TeachersNetwork.org
http://teachersnetwork.org/tnli/research/prep/Fenton/index.htm

This article explores the current role of practicing teachers in guiding pre-service teachers and how that role should be expanded.

An ASCD Study Guide for Teachers Wanted: Attracting and Retaining Good Teachers
Daniel Heller. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2004.
http://www.ascd.org/...Attracting_and_Retaining_Good_Teachers.aspx

Chapter 2 describes ways for schools and practicing teachers to establish partnerships with pre-service training institutions. The author suggests viewing the practicing teachers and higher education professors as equals and suggests ways that practicing teachers may be involved in pre-service training such as teacher-professor exchange programs.

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ISSUE: Can practicing teachers identify and nurture future teachers while they are still in secondary school?

Cross-Age Tutoring: A Helping Hand Across the Grades
Cara Bafile. Education World. 2003.
http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev084.shtml

This article describes two different cross-age tutoring programs and the impact on the students involved. Such experiences may give students experiences that will help them decide to become a teacher in the future.

Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring
ERIC Digest, Number 79
http://www.ericdigests.org/1993/peer.htm

This article defines cross-age tutoring and describes what makes it effective as well as how student tutors benefit from such programs.

Careers for the Twenty-First Century: Education
Patrice Cassedy. Lucent Books. 2003.
http://www.amazon.com/Careers-Twenty-First-Century-Mark-Devaney/dp/1560068981

This book is designed to introduce students in high school to a career in education. It explores the duties, training, pluses and minuses, pay, and outlook for teachers, principals, counselors, and media specialists. Higher education opportunities for professors and corporate opportunities for trainers are also presented.

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ISSUE: Are there instructional materials a practicing teacher can use in a pre-service course?

The Praxis Series: Teachers Licensure and Certification
http://www.ets.org/praxis/

The majority of states that include tests as part of their teacher licensure process rely on a series called the PraxisTM. Colleges of education often use the tests to qualify individuals for entry into teacher education programs and/or as exit exams. General information about PraxisTM tests, sample questions, and specific requirements for more than 40 states are included.

Information for Future Teachers
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. 2204.
http://www.ncate.org/Public/CurrentFutureTeachers/tabid/180/Default.aspx

This list of resources offers a wealth of information that would be helpful to anyone teaching a pre-service course. Resources include information about careers in education, licensure, distance education courses, and teaching resources.

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Disclaimer:

The Web resources collected on these pages are not maintained by Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), nor does EDC make the claim that they are accurate. As with all Web-based information, links change from time to time. To our knowledge, all links were functional as of March 2010. Please notify Kerry Ouellet at kouellet@edc.org if you experience any problems.

 

 

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